Custom Masters/Flo King
Phone: 407-331-4634
Fax: 407-331-0575
email: floking@sprintmail.com

 

Palladium Plating
Typical pH: 7 to 9
Temperature: Room temperature
Agitation: Mild to aggressive, depending on type of bath and process—rack, barrel or high-speed.
In-Tank Filtration: As with gold baths, continuous filtration is standard procedure to remove particulates that could cause cosmetic or structural problems.
Carbon Treatment: As needed
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC often specified. Polypropylene is excellent and sometimes preferred, particularly for ultra-high-purity applications.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 or FK10 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA or PMCB Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Palladium-Tin Activator
Typical pH: less than 2
Temperature: Room temperature to 100 F (38 C)
Agitation: Mild
In-Tank Filtration: In-tank filtration removes precipitated palladium particles that reduce activator efficiency.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC commonly specified. Polypropylene also excellent. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft recommended.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges to remove smaller particles.

Permanganate
Typical pH: Highly alkaline
Temperature: 175 to 190 F (79 to 88 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Most users do not even attempt to use in-tank filtration in this powerful deoxidizer because it rapidly attacks plastics, including polypropylene filter cartridges. However, stainless steel in-tank pumps are sometimes used for recirculation/agitation to promote uniform temperature.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: 316 stainless steel is the only choice available from Flo King. It usually holds up well in most permanganate solutions, but should still be inspected periodically for degradation, particularly at welds. (Note: Some suppliers recommend titanium tanks or liners for permanganate, but Flo King pumps are not available in titanium.)
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Again, most filter cartridges degrade rapidly in permanganate. Any attempts to filter are normally short-term only. The only other alternative is a special-order Flo King stainless-steel filter cartridge, which, while very expensive, is cleanable, reusable, and lasts indefinitely.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this very harsh environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of hot, corrosive fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of caustic-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Phosphate, Iron
Typical pH: 3.5 to 6
Temperature: 90 to 140 F (32 to 60 C)
Agitation: Moderate to aggressive
In-Tank Filtration: For low-sludging formulations, in-tank filtration can maintain bath cleanliness, reduce dumping frequency, cut down on nozzle clogging in spray-washer operations, and improve coating quality. However, some iron phosphate baths generate large volumes of sludge, making filtration impractical due to rapid clogging, changing, and disposing of filter cartridges.
Carbon Treatment: Rare, if ever
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC is commonly specified. However, at the higher temperature range, polypropylene is generally considered superior because it is less prone to brittleness.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Some users select the coarsest available disposable filter cartridges for high-throughput iron phosphate tanks that generate a fair amount of solids. The most popular are the FK75 (75-micron) and FK50 (50-micron) Poly-Spun disposable cartridges. For reusables, most iron phosphaters select the relatively coarse PMCXC (75-micron) and PMCXF (30-micron) Super Magnum blankets, although the PMCA or finer Magnum blankets can also be used if smaller particles must be removed.
Special Notes: Where the iron phosphate bath is part of an automated spray-washer system, it is necessary to install the Flo King unit in the reservoir tank. In these cases, users typically fashion a hole or hinged-lid arrangement in the sheet-metal tank cover. The cutaway is large enough to introduce the Flo King pump body and filter cartridges, but small enough that the motor base and motor sit on top of the tank cover.

Phosphate, Zinc or Manganese
Typical pH: 1.8 to 3.2
Temperature: Zinc phosphate, 120 to 180 F (49 to 83 C); Manganese phosphate, 180 to 190 F (82 to 88 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Unless the tank is very small, the sludge generated by these baths is generally so voluminous that in-tank filtration is totally impractical. In addition, to further complicate matters, the precipitated solids are a lot like hardened concrete. Most users just periodically decant the bath and shovel out the sludge. However, some users install an in-tank pump exclusively to recirculate the bath (no filters attached) for temperature and coating uniformity.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: Kynar (PVDF) or possibly stainless steel are often the only materials that will survive in these solutions at the higher temperature ranges. A small number of users have specified CPVC or polypropylene in the lower-temperature zinc phosphate baths.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: As stated above, attempts to use in-tank filtration on these solutions are generally futile, unless perhaps the tank is very small and the solids manageable. In these cases, use the coarsest available cartridge in the appropriate length--the FK75 (75-micron) Poly-Spun Disposable.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this harsh environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Platinum Plating
Typical pH: 2 to 12
Temperature: 165 to 185 F (74 to 85 C)
Requirements generally the same as for gold plating baths.

Rhodium Plating
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: 104 to 130 F (40 to 54 C)
Requirements generally the same as for gold plating baths.

Rinses, Water
Typical pH: N/A
Temperature: Room temperature to hot
Agitation: Mild to aggressive
In-Tank Filtration: Some users filter periodically to remove dragged-in materials; others filter continuously to reduce dumping and therefore minimize water consumption.
Carbon Treatment: Can reduce frequency of dumps and water consumption by removing cloudiness associated with dragged-in organics. May reduce staining on parts.
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC often specified. Polypropylene is also excellent but costs more.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Ruthenium Plating
Typical pH: 1.5 to 2.5
Temperature: 150 to 170 F (66 to 77 C)
Requirements generally the same as for gold plating baths.