Custom Masters/Flo King
Phone: 407-331-4634
Fax: 407-331-0575
email: floking@sprintmail.com

 

Nickel Plating (Bright & Sulfamate)
Typical pH: 4 to 4.5
Temperature: Bright, 140 F (60 C); Sulfamate, 100 to 140 F (38 to 60 C)
Agitation: Moderate to aggressive
In-Tank Filtration: Continuous filtration is imperative to ensure blemish-free appearance of bright nickel deposits. For electroforming and other engineering coatings using sulfamate baths, roughness prevention is top priority.
Carbon Treatment: Frequent or continuous for bright nickel; as needed for sulfamate.
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Polypropylene is excellent but costs more. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft recommended.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA or PMCB Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: If used in a harsh plating environment, the pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Nickel Plating, Woods Strike
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: Room temperature
Agitation: Light to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: As needed for general bath cleanliness.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Polypropylene is excellent but costs more. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft required.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this corrosive environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Nickel Plating, Electroless (Autocatalytic)
Typical pH: 4 to 6.5 for nickel-phosphorus (the most popular type); 10 for the alkaline type
Temperature: 180 to 195 F (82 to 91 C) for nickel-phosphorus; 100 to 150 F (38 to 66 C) for alkaline type
Agitation: Very aggressive for electroless nickel-phosphorus type (a minimum of 10 turnovers per hour is typical); light to moderate for alkaline EN bath.
In-Tank Filtration: In-tank filtration frequently provides enough agitation to replace alternate agitation systems in electroless nickel-phosphorus baths while providing temperature uniformity and particulate removal. The alkaline EN baths for plastics plating, aluminum strikes, and electronics plating (Ni-Boron) may be filtered as needed for general cleanliness.
Carbon Treatment: Rare, if ever
Pump Material of Construction: Some customers are able to use CPVC at temperatures up to 185-190 F (85-88 C). Polypropylene is suitable for most applications up to about 194 F (90 C). At higher temperatures, warping may occur. The best material of construction for EN baths is usually considered to be the high-temperature plastic PVDF (Kynar), but this comes at a premium price many are unwilling to pay. In very rare cases, stainless steel may be specified.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: For in-tank filtration of electroless plating baths, the most popular strategy is to use fairly short filter cartridges—10" long (25 cm)—and change them very frequently. This helps to reduce plate-out on the cartridges themselves as particulates are captured on the filter fibers. Most EN platers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables. A smaller number use the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables, but thorough cleaning and neutralization are essential in order to  prevent catastrophic decomposition of the EN bath. Here is one EN plater's procedure for cleaning the reusable blankets: (1) At end of each working day, EN solution is transferred from process tank to holding tank. At this time, operator unrolls Magnum filter blanket from cartridge core. (2) Operator thoroughly sprays Magnum blanket with water using hose and spray nozzle or pressure spray washer. (3) Magnum blanket is placed in EN process tank as it is filled with 50% nitric acid for tank cleanup. (4) The next day, Magnum blanket is removed from tank and again thoroughly sprayed with water. (5) Magnum is immersed in water rinse tank. (6) Magnum is rinsed in a solution containing about 5% ammonia to neutralize any remaining nitric acid. (7) Magnum is rewrapped around cartridge core, ready for reuse.
Special Notes: The popular EN-phosphorus bath generates a highly corrosive, fuming, steaming environment. The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing. Others fashion a hinged tank cover with cutaway (see Bulletin 13.1 in our catalog). The cutaway is large enough to introduce the Flo King pump body and filter cartridge, but small enough that the motor base and motor sit on top of the tank cover. This helps protect the motor from hot, corrosive fumes. Energy conservation is another benefit, as the tank cover retains bath heat.