Custom Masters/Flo King
Phone: 407-331-4634
Fax: 407-331-0575
email: floking@sprintmail.com

 

Dyes, Organic (for Post-Anodizing Operations)
Typical pH: 4 to 5.6
Temperature: 130 to 150 F (54 to 66 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Stagnant dye baths can develop fungal growths that may interfere with coating uniformity. Other contaminants may result in smut on finish. In-tank filtration can resolve both of these problems.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC often specified, but polypropylene tends to be longer-lived and is often preferred for the hotter dye baths.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron) to remove smaller particles.

Electropolishing (of Stainless Steel)
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: 160+ F (71+ C)
Agitation: Mild to aggressive
In-Tank Filtration: Some users report that filtration removes solids that can interfere with electropolishing (causing spotting). Others filter to help prevent the buildup of metal salts and sludge at the tank bottom. A special "high-density" in-tank filter system is required to pump the viscous, high-specific-gravity (approximately 1.7 sp. gr.) sulfuric/phosphoric acid solution.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC often specified but may become brittle over time in high-temperature applications. Some customers find that polypropylene lasts longer. For very high-temperature applications, PVDF (Kynar) is necessary. Stainless steel is used rarely. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft required. For those chemical formulations where titanium is unsuitable, a shaft or shaft tip made of Hastelloy C276 alloy is available.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK50 or FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron) to remove smaller particles. (Note: The coarser PMCXF or PMCXC Super Magnum reusables may decompose prematurely in the more aggressive chemical concentrations at the higher end of the temperature spectrum. They should be tested under careful observation.)
Special Notes: This is a very harsh environment. The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Gold Plating (Acid, Pure, Cyanide-Free & High-Cyanide)
Typical pH: Acid, 3.5 to 5.5; Pure, 5 to 5.8; Cyanide-Free, 9 to 11; High-Cyanide, 9 to 12
Temperature: Acid, Room to 130 F (54 C); Pure, 140 to 150 F (60 to 66 C); Cyanide-Free, 110 to 130 F (44 to 54 C); High-Cyanide, Room to 120 F (49 C)
Agitation: Light to aggressive, depending on type of bath and process—rack, barrel or high-speed.
In-Tank Filtration: Continuous filtration is standard in gold baths to remove particulates that could cause cosmetic or structural imperfections.
Carbon Treatment: As needed. Note: Carbon has the capacity to remove gold from solution. Excessive carbon treatment may seriously deplete gold concentration.
Pump Material of Construction: Polypropylene is excellent and sometimes preferred, particularly for ultra-high-purity applications. CPVC sometimes specified.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK20 or FK10 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: If the acid gold bath is in a harsh environment, the pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.  

Iron Plating (Ferrous Chloride)
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: 190 to 210 F (88 to 99 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Used for general cleanliness and to promote uniform bath temperature.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: PVDF (Kynar) is the only material suitable for ferrous chloride iron plating baths. Shaft or shaft tip made of titanium or Hastelloy C276 required.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK50 or FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length.  Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: This is a harsh environment. The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.