Custom Masters/Flo King
Phone: 407-331-4634
Fax: 407-331-0575
email: floking@sprintmail.com

 

Cadmium Plating, Cyanide
Typical pH: 12 to 14
Temperature: 65 to 95 F (18 to 35 C)
Agitation: Mild
In-Tank Filtration: Users report reduction of bath cloudiness, elimination of residue settling on tank bottom, and removal of potentially roughness-causing debris such as anode sludge.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: Polypropylene is preferred. CPVC may be serviceable but may also become brittle, then crack or split, over time under highly alkaline conditions.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Chromate
Typical pH: 1 to 4
Temperature: 65 to 85 F (18 to 29 C)
Agitation: Mild
In-Tank Filtration: Extends chromate bath life by removing constituents that crystallize and settle out. Filterable debris that becomes embedded beneath chromate coating has been linked to salt-fog test failure of parts.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Polypropylene also excellent. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft recommended for baths with high chromic acid concentrations.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Chromium Plating, Trivalent
Typical pH: Two major types. The first operates at 2.4 to 2.8; the other at 2.5 to 3.5
Temperature: The first type operates at 105 to 110 F (41 to 44 C); the other at 120 F (49 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Provides general bath cleanliness and circulation to promote good color uniformity. Also sometimes used to remove salts that may cling to parts after adding maintenance chemicals to precipitate metallic impurities.
Carbon Treatment: Rare for first type; frequent to continuous for second type.
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft recommended for baths with high chromic acid concentrations.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Chromium Plating, Hexavalent (Decorative)
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: 95 to 100 F (35 to 38 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Bath is not always filtered because it is highly forgiving of filterable contaminants. However, filtration is sometimes used to prevent buildup of anode sludge and for recirculation to avoid temperature extremes that result in "frosty" (opaque) deposits at different areas of rack.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. PVDF (Kynar) is better longterm, but costs considerably more and most users are unwilling to pay for it. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft recommended.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Some customers use the PMCXF Permacore Super Magnum (30-micron) reusable filter. It employs a polyester reusable filter blanket that withstands highly concentrated chromic-acid-containing solutions. However, other customers prefer to try the polypropylene FK20 Poly-Spun disposable filter cartridges. In this case, the operator must frequently check the cartridge to make sure the polypropylene fibers do not disintegrate in and contaminate the chromic acid solution.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Chromium Plating, Hexavalent ("Hard" Chrome)
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: 140 F (60  C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Some hard chrome platers specify in-tank systems solely for agitation to prevent solution stratification or even to reduce misting from air agitation systems. A few filter intermittently or continuously to remove debris such as bits of maskant, lead chromate that sloughs off anodes, or barium sulfate formed when barium carbonate is added for sulfate reduction. 
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. PVDF (Kynar) is the preferred material but costs considerably more and most users are unwilling to pay for it. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft required. For fluoride-containing solutions, Hastelloy C276 alloy shaft or shaft tip required.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Almost all customers use the PMCXF (30-micron) or PMCXC (75-micron) Permacore Super Magnum reusable filter cartridge. It employs a polyester reusable filter blanket that withstands highly concentrated chromic-acid-containing solutions, even at elevated temperatures. In rare cases, customers use the FK50 Poly-Spun disposable filter cartridges, but at considerable risk. Hard chrome will cause polypropylene to disintegrate, and severe solution contamination may result. In these cases, the customers change filter cartridges very often to prevent significant or total disintegration of the polypropylene cartridges.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this highly corrosive environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush or spray on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Cleaners, Alkaline
Typical pH: 8 to 14
Temperature: 100 to 200 F (38 to 93  C)
Agitation: Mild to aggressive. Note: Aggressive agitation is often desirable to assist the cleaning process by mechanically removing dirt from parts.
In-Tank Filtration: At a minimum, cleaner life can normally be doubled using in-tank filtration. However, some cleaners generate high volumes of sludge, making filtration impractical due to rapid clogging, changing, and disposing of filter cartridges.
Carbon Treatment: None. Because carbon has an affinity for organics, treatment would remove both the "bad" organic contaminants and the "good" intentionally-added organics such as surfactants.
Pump Material of Construction: Depends on degree of alkalinity, bath temperature, and aggressiveness of cleaner. CPVC is usually okay for mild, relatively low-pH alkaline cleaners below 140 F (60 C). But CPVC tends to dry out, crack and split quickly in aggressive, highly alkaline cleaners over about 160 F (71 C). Polypropylene also tends to be satisfactory for mild, low-pH cleaners under 160 F, but frequently swells badly or otherwise distorts in higher-temperature, aggressive, high-pH cleaners. PVDF (Kynar) generally suffers the same fate as CPVC. In cases of harsh, high-temperature cleaners, stainless steel is the only safe and recommended material of construction.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Many customers use the coarsest disposable filter cartridges available for cleaner tanks that generate a fair amount of solids. The FK75 (75-micron) Poly-Spun disposable is a popular choice. For reusable cartridges in high-temperature cleaners, there is only one choice, and that is the PMCA Permacore Magnum style. This 10-micron polypropylene reusable blanket is the coarsest available for this application. The coarser PMCXF and PMCXC Super Magnum blankets are not a candidate because they are made of a polyester material that may disintegrate in high-temperature alkaline solutions.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this hot, highly corrosive environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Copper Plating, Acid, Pyrophosphate & Fluoborate
Typical pH: Acid Copper, 1 to 3; Pyrophosphate, 8 to 9; Fluoborate, 0.2 to 1.7
Temperature: Acid Copper, 65 to 120 F (18 to 49 C); Pyrophosphate, 120 to 140 F (49 to 60 C); Fluoborate, 65 to 140 F (18 to 60 C)
Agitation: Moderate to aggressive (often very aggressive for acid copper plating).
In-Tank Filtration: Thorough, continuous filtration is usually the norm to preserve cosmetic and structural integrity of the deposits. Roughness prevention is most important.
Carbon Treatment: Frequent or continuous for acid copper and fluoborate. Occasional for pyrophosphate copper.
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Polypropylene also excellent. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft required for acid copper.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: Acid copper is the most popular of these processes and represents a harsh plating environment. For acid copper, the pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Copper Plating, Cyanide
Typical pH: 12 to 14
Temperature: Room Temperature to 130 F  (to 55 C)
Agitation: Mild
In-Tank Filtration: Bath can be filtered intermittently or continuously to prevent sludge buildup at tank bottom and deposit roughness if sludge is disturbed. Users also report elimination of non-uniform plating as agitation from in-tank filter system solves the problem of temperature extremes.
Carbon Treatment: As needed
Pump Material of Construction: Polypropylene preferred. CPVC may be satisfactory but often becomes brittle, then cracks and splits over time in highly alkaline solutions.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Copper Plating, Electroless
Typical pH: 12+
Temperature: Room Temperature to 125 F  (to 52 C)
Agitation: Moderate to aggressive
In-Tank Filtration: Removes electroless copper flakes that contribute to roughness and become sites for plate-out.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: Polypropylene usually specified. CPVC and PVDF (Kynar) suffer from brittleness, cracking and splitting in electroless copper.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: For in-tank filtration of electroless plating baths, the most popular strategy is to use fairly short filter cartridges—10" long (25 cm)—and change them very frequently. This helps to reduce plate-out on the cartridges themselves as particulates are captured on the filter fibers. Most customers start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be desirable to use finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this hot, corrosive environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.