Custom Masters/Flo King
Phone: 407-331-4634
Fax: 407-331-0575
email: floking@sprintmail.com

 

Acid Pickling
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: Room temperature & higher
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Can remove solids that reduce bath life and that may carry over to plating tanks, thus jeopardizing adhesion or resulting in poor appearance (e.g., blotchy coatings).
Carbon Treatment: Rare, but some customers use in-tank carbon treatment for the removal of light oils dragged into the pickle solution.
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually preferred. Polypropylene also excellent.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK50 or FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron rating) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Acid Passivation
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: Room temperature to 120 F (49 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: One user passivating stainless steel reports an increase in bath life from three to 18 months by continuously using in-tank filtration to remove metal fines and drag-in products.
Carbon Treatment: Rare, but some customers use in-tank carbon treatment for the removal of light oils dragged into the passivation solution.
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Polypropylene also excellent.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK50 or FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron rating) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Anodizing, Sulfuric Acid
Typical pH: less than 1
Temperature: 25 to 70 F ( -18 to 21 C)
Agitation: Mild to moderate for most non-hardcoat processes.  However, violent agitation is required to dissipate the heat generated in hardcoat anodize baths. For hardcoat anodizing, it is difficult to satisfy agitation demands with an in-tank pump; extremely aggressive agitation from a blower system is almost always required.
In-Tank Filtration: Although anodizing baths are generally considered very forgiving in terms of coating defects, some operators claim that filterable solids cause voids in finish. In-tank filtration tends to transform baths from muddy-looking to clear while providing desirable agitation. Users have described a variety of filterable particulates ranging from globules of congealed oil to red particles from aluminum-copper alloys.
Carbon Treatment: Rare
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually preferred. Polypropylene also excellent. Titanium or titanium-tip shaft required.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK50 or FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron rating) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this highly corrosive environment. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush or spray on the pump motor a thin layer of acid-resistant liquid maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Blackening, Room Temperature
pH: 1-3
Temperature: 60 to 80 F (up to 27 C)
Agitation: Light to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: Desirable to remove precipitates.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually specified. Polypropylene also excellent.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to coarser cartridges (higher micron rating) to remove larger particles or finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.

Black Oxide
pH: 13-14
Temperature: 200 to 210 F (93 to 102 C). This is considered a "low-temperature" black oxide. Note: Flo King pumps are generally not suitable for black oxides or other solutions operating at temperatures higher than 210 F.
Agitation: Light to moderate to promote uniform solution temperature and concentration.
In-Tank Filtration: Usually not needed.
Carbon Treatment: None
Pump Material of Construction: Stainless steel is the only material that will survive in this hot, caustic solution.
Special Notes: The pump must be mounted in a well-ventilated location for maximum motor life in this extremely hot solution. The pump must not be installed in front of the ventilation exhaust, as this will expose the motor to a continuous draft of fumes. In addition, some users brush on the pump motor a thin layer of appropriate maskant to prevent perforation corrosion of the motor housing.

Brass or Bronze Plating
Typical pH: 10 to 11.5
Temperature: 110+ F (44+ C)
Agitation: Light to moderate
In-Tank Filtration: The primary objective of filtering is roughness prevention. Note: Brass and other high-cyanide-containing baths are sensitive to aeration (especially surface bubbling). Excessive breaking of the wetted surface dissolves carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, causing carbonate formation and grainy, porous, dull or thin deposits. Therefore, the pump model and pump body length must be properly sized to avoid aeration.
Carbon Treatment: As needed
Pump Material of Construction: CPVC usually okay but polypropylene may be preferred due to relatively high bath alkalinity, which may cause CPVC to embrittle, crack and split over time.
Commonly Used Filter Cartridges: Most users start with the FK20 Poly-Spun Disposables or the PMCA Permacore Magnum Reusables in the required length. Depending on the solids generated, it may be necessary to switch to finer cartridges (lower micron rating) to remove smaller particles.